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Congenital Heart Diseases and its types

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Congenital Heart Diseases and its types

Cardiac Sciences | Posted on 10/18/2021 by RBH

Congenital heart diseases are structural or functional heart defects that exist since birth, which means that a child is born with them. When the growing fetus does not get enough nutrition in the mother's womb, it is quite likely to affect the development of different organs, including the heart. Congenital heart disease may involve the heart valves, arteries, or other associated structures. In some cases, the defects are minor and do not require any medical assistance as they do not cause any serious problems and may even heal by themselves, as the child grows. However, in certain cases, a child with congenital heart disease may require constant medical care and surgical treatment.
Nowadays, with the help of advanced technology, doctors are able to detect and identify various heart defects while the child is inside the womb. This helps the doctor to determine the appropriate nutritional needs of the growing fetus and offer medical care accordingly. The expected mother may also be recommended certain supplements and dietary modifications to meet the nutritional needs of her baby. This significantly lowers the risks of chronic congenital heart ailments.


In some cases, a child with a congenital heart defect does not show any signs or symptoms, but others may show some specific symptoms that point towards the possibility of congenital heart disease. A few of these include:


  •  Shortness of breath
  •  Cyanosis – bluish skin, lips and nails
  •  Fatigue
  •  Abnormal heart disease
  •  Oedema- swelling of body tissues
  •  Chest pain
  •  Nausea
  •  Lowered growth rate

Different Congenital heart defects:

Aortic Valve Stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis is a type of congenital heart disease in which the blood is unable to pump out of the heart due to the narrowed aorta which is the main artery. It greatly hampers the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body, resulting in the thickening of the left ventricle due to which the heart has to work a lot harder than usual. This kind of heart disease causes a lot of other problems as enough oxygen is not supplied to the body.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is a type of congenital heart disease in which the pulmonary valve, which is responsible for the flow of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, gets narrower than usual. This again disrupts the normal functioning of the heart by restricting the flow of the blood, leading to chronic fatigue. As a result, the person does not get enough purified blood to the lungs and the entire circulatory system gets affected due to this.

Septal Defect

A Septal Defect implies that the child is born with a hole in the septum of the heart. The septum separates the left and right chambers of the heart. And if there is a hole in that part of the heart then the blood in the two chambers gets mixed which can lead to a lot of circulatory problems.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

In Atrial Septal Defect, there is a hole in the wall of the upper chambers or the Atrium that causes the mixing of blood from the Left Atrium to the Right Atrium. Some of the Atrial Septal Defects get healed on their own but most of them require a minimally invasive catheter procedure or surgical techniques in order to close the hole. There are a lot of medical procedures with the help of which this kind this condition can be treated.

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

In Ventricular Septal Defect, there is a hole in the wall of the lower chambers or the ventricles that causes the mix of blood from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. In some cases, the defect does not require a medical procedure and it gets healed but many babies do require surgery in order to repair it.

Truncus Arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a rare congenital heart disease in which the two main arteries, i.e pulmonary artery, and aorta do not get developed properly and exist as a single vessel. This causes a lot of blood flow into the lungs, leading to increased pressure on the lungs which further causes breathing difficulty. This defect is fatal and requires immediate medical care.

Rukmani Birla Hospital is one of the top multi-specialty hospitals that provides the best cardiac treatment. It is a renowned hospital, recognized as one of the leading cardiac hospitals in Jaipur. We have a team of highly experienced cardiologists and healthcare professionals who are dedicated to providing the ultimate cardiac care. For any heart-related problem or query contact RBH hospital.