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Asthma: Causes, Management, and Treatment

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Asthma: Causes, Management, and Treatment

Pulmonology | by CMRI | Published on 27/08/2021

Asthma is a respiratory ailment wherein the airways to the lungs get swollen, and the muscles get tightened leading to the narrowing of air passage and the production of extra mucus. For some, it is considered a minor issue while others think of it as a health concern that makes challenging or impossible daily physical activities leading to a life-threatening situation of an asthma attack. Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI), is one of the Best Hospitals that offer Asthma Treatment in Kolkata to kids and people of all ages.


What are the symptoms of asthma?


Asthma leads to varied signs and symptoms which differ in every individual:


  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Coughing (especially while laughing, exercising, or sleeping)
  • Wheezing sound during exhalation
  • Shortness of breath leading to trouble sleeping
  • Tightness of muscles in the chest or chest pain
  • Trouble in speaking
  • Panic and anxiety
  • Fatigue


Types Of Asthma :


Asthma can be classified based on the situations in which the symptoms can be observed. These includes:


  • Occupational asthma: It arises from the triggers in the workplace of the person such as gases, fumes, dyes, animal proteins, rubber latex, industrial chemicals, and dust.
  • Allergic asthma: It is induced by airborne allergens such as mold spores, pet dander, pollen, dust; or food allergens
  • Exercise-induced asthma: It occurs when the surrounding air of the individual is cold and dry and affects people who have started physical exercises or after about 15 minutes of physical activity.
  • Nocturnal asthma: The symptoms of asthma seem to worsen only at the night due to heartburn, dust mites, or pet dander.


Causes and triggering factors of Asthma:


There is no single reason underlying asthma condition. It can be caused by various factors like:


  • Family history: If a parent or sibling is suffering from asthma, the person will inherit genes that increase the likelihood of him/her having asthma.
  • Environmental factors: These include air pollutants, airborne allergens like mold spores, pet dander, dust mites, particles of cockroach waste, and pollen, and irritants like tobacco smoke and fumes.
  • History of viral infections: When the person has suffered from a severe viral infection like RSV in childhood, the condition is more likely to develop.
  • Modern hygiene standards: It is a theory that when infants are not exposed to bacteria in their early life because of their sterile surroundings, they cannot develop a strong immune system to respond to asthma and other allergic conditions.


Other triggers can be:


  • Respiratory infections like the common cold and flu
  • Medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and beta-blockers
  • Stress and strong emotions like laughter
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Preservatives and sulfites found in some food and beverages
  • Physical activity.


How can asthma be managed or treated?


The pulmonologist in Kolkata at CMRI recommend a combination of treatments or one treatment based on the age, type of asthma, and triggers. This helps manage the symptoms and provides a better life quality to the individual.

The treatment options For Asthma available are:


  • Breathing exercises: This includes all the workouts in which the maximum possible air is taken inside the lungs and expelled out. It helps in increasing the lung capacity of the patient and prevents the severity of asthma.


  • Quick-relief asthma treatments: This includes the use of a rescue inhaler or nebulizer having medications inside such as bronchodilators (for relaxation of tight muscles around the air passage). It provides instant ease of breathing in case of an asthma attack or when a person experiences any asthma symptoms.


  • Long-term asthma control medications: This comprises anticholinergics (to prevent muscle from tightening around the airways), long-acting bronchodilators (used along with anti-inflammatory drugs to make easier breathing), anti-inflammatories (use of corticosteroids for reducing swelling and mucus production in air passages of lungs), and biologic therapy drugs (injections to control symptoms of severe asthma).


  • Bronchial thermoplasty: In the case of severe asthma, an invasive procedure called bronchial thermoplasty is carried out by a surgeon. During the surgery, a thin and flexible tube (an electrode) is inserted through the throat into the lungs which heats the tight muscles around the airways to loosen them and widen the air passage. The patient is kept asleep throughout the procedure by providing general anesthesia.  


If your child is experiencing symptoms of asthma. Contact the best asthma children doctor at Calcutta Medical Research Institute, Kolkata.