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Lung Cancer

What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the lungs, either in the bronchi (large airways) or the smaller air sacs known as alveoli. It is one of the most common types of cancer, and it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Get in touch with us to book an appointment with some of the best specialists in Kolkata for long-term health benefits.

What Are The Different Stages Of Lung Cancer?

Lung Cancer is categorised into different stages based on the size of the tumour, the extent of the tumour with respect to the surrounding tissues, and whether it spreads to the lymph nodes or not. Each stage is a combination of the size and spread of the tumour which can fall into that category. In general, different stages of lung cancer include - 

  • Stage 0 - Cancer is in the top lining of the lung or bronchus. It hasn’t spread to other parts of the lung or outside of the lung
  • Stage I - Cancer has not spread outside the lung
  • Stage II - There’s more than one tumour whose size is greater than Stage I and has spread to the lymph nodes inside the lung. There’s more than one tumour in the same lobe of the lung
  • Stage III - There are multiple tumours in the different lobes of the same lung. Additionally, the size of a tumour is larger than the stage II tumour
  • Stage IV - Cancer has spread to the other lung, the fluid around the lung and heart and possibly distant organs

What Are the Symptoms Of Lung Cancer?

The symptoms of lung cancer can vary, depending on the size and location of the tumour. Some of the common symptoms include:

  • Persistent cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Coughing up blood
  • Hoarseness
  • Bone pain

What Are the Causes Of Lung Cancer?

The primary cause of lung cancer is smoking. People who smoke or who have a history of smoking are at a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Additionally, patients with high exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, radon, and other chemicals can also increase the risk of developing lung cancer. 

Lung cancer can also progress as a result of different risk factors like a history of radiation treatments to the chest (breast cancer or lymphoma) or having a family history of lung cancer. Call us to book an appointment with some of our specialists and determine the cause of lung cancer.

When Should I Consult The Doctor for A Lung Cancer?

Consult a doctor if the symptoms of lung cancer persist or do not improve with time. Lung cancer can cause a number of symptoms which can increase the risk of complications. Call us to book an appointment with our leading experts for an early diagnosis to ensure an effective treatment.

How Are Lung Cancers Diagnosed?

A lung cancer diagnosis is a combination of physical examination and analysing of your symptoms and medical history reports. Furthermore, to confirm lung cancer, the doctor may recommend the following tests - 

  • Imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans
  • Blood tests to check the working of other parts of the body
  • Sputum cytology to check for cancer cells under the microscope
  • Molecular testing for gene mutation
  • A biopsy involves removing a small piece of tissue from the lung for examination under a microscope. A biopsy can be done in several ways - 
    1. Needle biopsy
    2. Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)
    3. Thoracentesis
    4. Endobronchial ultrasound or endoscopic oesophagal ultrasound
    5. Mediastinoscopy or mediastinotomy

What Are The Treatment Options For Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall medical health, and the patient's preferences. Common treatments options for lung cancer include - 

  • Surgery to remove the tumour and surrounding tissue
  • Radiofrequency ablation which uses high-energy radio waves to heat and destroy cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy, which uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells
  • Targeted drug therapy, which targets specific genetic mutations that drive the growth of cancer cells
  • Palliative care which includes therapies to reduce or remove tumours that obstruct the airways and remove fluid from the lungs and prevent it from recurring
  • Immunotherapy, which uses the body's immune system to fight cancer

Why Choose CMRI for Lung Cancer Treatment in Kolkata?

The Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI) is one of the largest multispecialty hospitals in Kolkata. Our hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art technology, revolutionising the healthcare industry for the best surgical outcomes. 

In addition, CMRI has several eminent specialists, doctors and healthcare providers of national and international reputations for comprehensive and personalised treatment. CMRI provides patient-centric care and empathy from internationally trained nurses to ensure holistic care for patients seeking treatment for lung cancer. Here are a few advantages of choosing CMRI for lung cancer treatment- 

  • Highly qualified and experienced doctors
  • 440-bed capacity along with cutting-edge technology and the latest medical equipment
  • Hygienic and patient-friendly infrastructure
  • Thorough screening and diagnosis
  • Transparent Pricing Structure for cost-effective treatment
  • Patient-centric, high-quality care for a high success rate
  • Pain management and palliative care
  • Complete and coordinated care for patients with all types of cancers.


Is lung cancer curable?

Yes, lung cancer if detected in the early stages can be curable. There are several surgical and non-surgical options to either remove the cancer cells or manage the symptoms. 

Can stage 4 lung cancer be cured?

No, there is no cure for stage 4 lung cancer. However, the doctor may suggest different measures to help manage the symptoms and prevent the condition from progressing further.

How to prevent lung cancer?

There is no way to prevent lung cancer. However, there are certain measures which can reduce the risk of forming tumours - 

  • Stop smoking
  • Avoid second-hand smoke
  • Avoid exposure to toxic chemicals and substances
  • Eat a balanced diet full of fruits and vegetables
  • Stay physically active

What are the different types of lung cancers?

Lung cancer can be categorised into the following types based on its location and size.

  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
  • Lymphomas (cancer in your lymph nodes) 
  • Sarcomas (cancer in your bones or soft tissue)
  • Pleural mesothelioma (cancer in the lining of your lungs)

Does vaping cause lung cancer?

Vaping includes several chemicals which can be harmful to the lungs. While there is little information regarding the direct relation of vaping with lung cancer, smoking or inhaling chemicals is usually a risk factor for lung cancer and other respiratory diseases.

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