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Coronary Artery Disease

What is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the heart conditions which affect the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart. Coronary Artery Disease causes problems for the major blood vessels to send enough oxygen, nutrients, and blood to the heart muscles. Inflammation and plaque deposits are the primary causes of this condition. It is also known as a silent killer. Some people have had CAD for years and do not have any symptoms until they experience a heart attack.

Symptoms of coronary artery disease

Chest discomfort or angina is among the most common symptom of coronary artery disease. Other symptoms include:

  • Heaviness in the chest
  • Chest pain
  • Burning sensation
  • Squeezing

These symptoms can also be flawed for indigestion or heartburn. So, it is important to notice other symptoms like:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Back pain
  • Vomiting
  • Abnormal heart rhythms especially among men
  • Sweating
  • Arms and shoulder pain

These symptoms shouldn’t be ignored, especially if they are excruciating and last for more than five minutes. Medical treatment is required right away.

Coronary artery disease causes

There are several causes of coronary artery disease which includes:

  • Vascular injury with cholesterol plaque build-up in the arteries
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes or insulin resistance
  • Sedentary lifestyle

Coronary artery disease risk factors

It is important to comprehend the coronary artery disease risk factors to prevent the probability of growing this condition. Here are some of the risk factors:

  • High blood cholesterol levels
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Obesity
  • Not getting enough exercise
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Preeclampsia history during pregnancy
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Diabetes mellitus

Coronary artery disease diagnosis

Coronary artery diagnosis needs reviewing the clinical history, physical assessment, and other clinical testing ordered by the doctor. Here are the tests usually ordered to detect CAD:

  • Electrocardiogram: Helps in determining if the patient has had a heart attack and monitors electrical signals traveling through the heart
  • Echocardiogram: This creates a picture of the heart and helps in understanding whether the heart is functioning right or not.
  • Stress test: This test helps in measuring stress on the heart during physical activity and while the patient is at rest. It involves monitoring the electrical activity of the heart while the patient walks on a treadmill or rides a bike.
  • Cardiac catheterization- It helps in increasing the radiographic picture of the patient’s coronary arteries to detect blockages
  • CT scan- It is ordered to identify calcium deposits in the coronary arteries.




Coronary artery disease treatment

It is vital to control the CAD risk factors and seek treatment immediately to decrease the probability of a stroke or heart attack. Coronary artery disease treatment relies on the patient’s current health condition, risk factors, and overall health.

The most common treatment recommended for CAD is medications such as:

  • Cholesterol drugs to control bad cholesterol and eliminate plaque deposits in the arteries
  • Aspirin as a blood thinners and prevention for blood clots
  • Beta-blockers control blood pressure and slow down the heart rate
  • Nitroglycerin helps to relieve the chest pain
  • Ronalzine is recommended for people experiencing severe chest pain
  • Calcium channel blockers for improving the symptoms of chest pain

Lifestyle changes are recommended to eliminate the risk of heart stroke or attack caused by CAD:

  • Exercising regularly for around 30 minutes a day daily
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight
  • Eating a healthy diet such as fruits and green vegetables
  • Quit smoking
  • Quit smoking and alcohol

When the condition doesn’t improve with medications and lifestyle changes, the doctor might recommend surgery for increasing blood flow to the heart. The surgeries recommended are balloon angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and enhanced external counterpulsation.


Why should you choose BM Birla Heart Research Centre for coronary artery disease treatment?

BM Birla Heart Research Centre in Kolkata is a healthcare service offering remarkable healthcare services to its patients. Our hospital is combined with the latest and state-of-the-art medical technology. Our cardiology department is incorporated with the most brilliant and highly-qualified cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, nurses, and other staff members. If you observe the symptoms of coronary artery disease and are looking for treatment, then look no further. Consult our team and they will ensure that everything is taken care of for you.


How does diabetes cause coronary artery disease?

Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease by damaging the blood vessels and nerves controlling the heart. High glucose levels in the blood can lead to plaque deposits in the arteries making it complex for blood to effectively pump through the arteries and reach to areas like kidneys, eyes, feet, and legs.

Is coronary artery disease fatal?

Yes, coronary artery disease can cause death if not treated on time. It is found in research that CAD is among the leading causes of death among both men and women across the globe.

Does smoking cause coronary artery disease?

Yes, smoking is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. It leads to increasing the formation of plaque in blood vessels. Chemicals present in cigarettes cause blood thickness and clots formation inside arteries and veins.


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