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Things You Must Know About Menopause

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Things You Must Know About Menopause

Obstetrics and Gynaecology | by Dr. Manjari Chatterjee | Published on 06/03/2023

Overview: What is Menopause?

Menopause marks the end of a woman’s menstrual cycle. It is a natural part of ageing that usually occurs in women above 50 years of age. While the topic of menopause often comes into conversation during work or outside, it is mostly discussed in an abstract way. Most people think menopause is exclusively associated with biological changes in women, however, it also revolves around the impact it has on their emotional and psychological well-being.

Menopause age usually varies in women depending on their lifestyle, medical health, the existence of any disease or condition, etc. Menopause causes physical symptoms such as hot flashes, and emotional symptoms which can impact the quality of your sleep, and affect your emotional and mental well-being. If you are looking to gather information regarding menopause and the impact it has on women, this blog can provide a reference for the same. However, this blog does not replace the significance of a doctor’s consultation. So consult a gynecologist for more information and treatment.

Stages Of Menopause:

Natural menopause indicates the end of reproductive years without any type of medical treatment. Phases of menopause occur gradually in three stages - Perimenopause or menopause transition, Menopause, and Postmenopause. 

  • Perimenopause - It usually occurs several years (mostly 8-10 years) before menopause when the ovaries produce less estrogen. The period usually lasts until your ovaries stop releasing eggs and the estrogen level decreases.     
  • Menopause - It is the period when ovaries stop releasing eggs and estrogen production is significantly decreased. Women who enter menopause haven’t experienced periods for over a year. 
  • Postmenopause - This period refers to the time after menopause which is usually distinguished by hot flashes and night sweats. During this period, health risks associated with reduced estrogen increase as you get older.


Stages Of Menopause

Age (Average)



Mid 30’s to Late 40’s

  • Irregular period
  • Hot flashes
  • Sleeping problems
  • Mood changes
  • Vaginal and bladder issues
  • Decreased fertility
  • Changes in sexual function
  • Loss of bone
  • Change in cholesterol levels


Above 50 years

  • Irregular periods
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweats
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Mood swings
  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Hair thinning 
  • Dry skin
  • Loss of breast fullness


Late 50’s 

  • Hot flashes and night sweat
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Sexual discomfort
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Depression
  • Hair loss
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Insomnia
  • Dry skin
  • Weight changes

What Causes Menopause?

Women are born with eggs which are stored in their ovaries. The ovaries make estrogen and progesterone which control the menstruation cycle and ovulation. Menopause occurs when the ovaries are unable to release an egg each month which stops the menstruation process. While aging is the prominent cause of menstruation, there are other factors that can also trigger menopause. Here are some common causes of menopause - 

  • Declining reproductive hormones - The ovaries start producing less estrogen as women begin approaching their 30s. By the late 40s, the menstrual period becomes irregular and less frequent. The decline in reproductive hormones occurs naturally as a result of age. Eventually, as a woman crosses her 50s, ovaries stop releasing eggs. 
  • Oophorectomy (surgical removal of ovaries) - The doctor may recommend surgical intervention to remove ovaries which can cause immediate menopause. The procedure, also called oophorectomy is performed in case of any medical condition which can deteriorate overall health. Hysterectomy should not be confused with oophorectomy since the former involves uterus removal while keeping the ovaries intact. 
  • Chemotherapy & Radiation Therapy - Cancer therapies can progress menopause causing symptoms such as hot flashes. However, chemotherapy does not cause permanently halt menstruation and so, birth control measures may be preferred. Radiation therapy only affects ovarian function if radiation is directed at the ovaries.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency - In some women who turn 40, ovaries tend to prematurely stop releasing eggs which can alter the levels of estrogen and progesterone. This can be due to genetic factors. Unlike premature menopause, primary ovarian insufficiency is not always permanent. 

Predicting Menopause Age

There are several factors that influence a woman’s age at menopause. Heredity is one of the most common factors which can interfere with menopause. ‘When Will I Reach Menopause?’ While it is a question most women wonder, especially if they are planning a family, it is important to consult the doctor for accurate diagnosis and treatment if required.

Some women who hit menopause during their early 40s are most likely to pass it on to their offspring. On the other hand, some women may not reach menopause until they are 60 years old. While there is no way to calculate menopause age exactly, you can undergo several tests which can help determine the time period around which you may hit menopause.

What Are The Treatment Options For Menopause?

Menopause occurs naturally and so, some symptoms usually disappear over time. However, if the symptoms interfere with your daily life and become severe, you must consult the doctor. The doctor may recommend menopause treatment methods such as - 

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Topical Hormone Therapy
  • No hormone Medications
  • Medications for osteoporosis


Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women. Depending on your lifestyle habits, daily routine, and heredity, menopause can hit women naturally at different ages, but it usually occurs during their late 40s. Several symptoms associated with menopause can impact the quality of life and therefore must be treated. 

One of the common problems during menopause is hot flashes, which is a sudden feelings of warmth in the upper body. It is important to be open to your healthcare professional regarding your menopause symptoms and how you can best manage them.


Can a woman get pregnant after menopause?

No, menopause indicates the end of the menstrual cycle which means women can no longer get pregnant naturally.

Can periods restart after menopause?

No, menopause marks the end of the menstruation cycle which means you will not be able to experience periods or pregnancy. However, if you are experiencing blood, contact a doctor regarding the same.

What are hot flashes in menopause?

A hot flash is the sudden sensation of warmth in the upper body which causes redness over the face, neck, and chest. A hot flash during menopause can also cause sweating, and if you lose too much body heat, you might feel chilled afterward.

Does menopause cause weight gain?

Hormone changes in several women can result in weight gain. As you get older, you might start to lose muscles resulting in increased body weight.

Are there any risks of hormone therapy?

The possible health risks of hormone therapy include -

Are there any health risks associated with menopause?

Yes, the probability of several health risks after menopause increases. Here are some complications which can cause long-term health problems -

  • Osteoporosis
  • Coronary artery disease