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Eosinophilia: Overview, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

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Eosinophilia: Overview, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Pulmonology | Posted on 02/12/2024 by RBH



Introduction

Have you been experiencing skin changes or any respiratory illnesses? If yes, then it can indicate eosinophilia. An increase in white blood cells called eosinophils, or eosinophilia is caused by various that involve conditions like allergies, infections, autoimmune diseases, and some drugs. Factors like age, location, and underlying medical conditions are also among them. Mild eosinophilia is common and does not always represent a serious medical condition. 

On the other hand, if eosinophilia is serious or persistent, medical attention is important to identify the underlying cause and treat it. So, if you are seeking assistance from a healthcare professional, you can book your appointment with CK Birla Hospitals, Jaipur. You will find the most experienced and highly skilled professionals here. The frequency of this condition differs between populations and individuals, underscoring the relevance of a comprehensive medical evaluation for precise diagnosis and suitable treatment. 

In this blog, you will receive wide-ranging information on eosinophilia and everything related to it. Please note that this is research-based information and we do not promote overlooking the doctor’s consultation in any way. 

What is Eosinophilia?

Eosinophilia is a condition determined by an augmented level of eosinophils, a subgroup of white blood cells, in the blood. These cells hugely assist the immune system's reaction to allergens, parasites, and particular infections. However, low eosinophil counts are normal, and an increase in these cells indicates various underlying medical conditions like asthma, allergies, parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, and some cancer types. A blood test to measure eosinophil levels is involved in diagnosing the confirmation process. Its underlying cause must be addressed in treating this condition. Depending on the patient's requirements, this contains medication, lifestyle modifications, or other interventions.

What is a Normal range of Eosinophilia count?

The normal range for the number of eosinophils in the blood is often around 0–500 cells per microliter (µL). The reference range, however, can vary depending on the laboratory and the specific analysis technique involved slightly. An increased eosinophil count that is higher than the upper bound of this normal range is often known as eosinophilia. It's vital to understand that to assess medical relevance, eosinophil count interpretation must take into account the different attributes of each patient, their medical history, and any concomitant symptoms. It is recommended to seek personalized assessment and guidance from a healthcare expert if you are anxious about your eosinophil count.

What are Eosinophilia symptoms?

Eosinophilia causes multiple symptoms depending on its seriousness and the case. The symptoms might vary from person to person. However, here are some of the common symptoms: 

  • Respiratory Symptoms: Common respiratory symptoms, mainly in conditions like asthma and allergic reactions, involving wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and tightness in the chest.
  • Skin Changes: Allergy reactions or parasite infections lead to eczema, rashes, hives, and itching.
  • Gastrointestinal Problems: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders or parasitic infections impacting the digestive tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain.
  • Systemic Symptoms: Fever, lethargy, and malaise are common side effects of eosinophilia, specifically when autoimmune disorders or underlying infections exist.

What are Eosinophilia causes?

Eosinophilia can have various underlying causes determined by blood eosinophil levels. Here are some of the following causes: 

  • Reactions to Allergens: Eosinophilia usually happens due to a reaction to allergens involving dust mites, pollen, specific foods, or medications.
  • Parasitic Infections: Helminths and other parasites lead to eosinophilia as part of the immune system's reaction to an infection.
  • Asthma and Allergy Disorders: Prolonged inflammation caused by conditions like eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis outcomes in eosinophilia.
  • Autoimmune Diseases: Eosinophilia is a complication of several autoimmune diseases like Churg-Strauss syndrome (eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis).
  • Medication: Eosinophilia is a side effect of various medications that include antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticonvulsants.
  • Blood Disorders: Leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and hypereosinophilic syndrome are among the rare blood disorders causing eosinophilia.

How is Eosinophilia diagnosed?

A methodical approach is involved to diagnose eosinophilia and its counts to identify underlying causes. Here is how eosinophilia is diagnosed under the supervision of experts:

  • Blood Examinations: The primary diagnostic method is a complete blood count (CBC) the number of eosinophils in the blood. High counts above normal thresholds indicate Eosinophilia.
  • Medical History and Physical Examination: Healthcare professionals review the patient's medical history and perform a physical examination to assess symptoms and probable eosinophilia triggers.
  • Testing for Allergies: Blood or skin prick tests are involved to identify which allergens particularly cause an immune response if allergies are vulnerable.
  • Imaging Studies: Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans are recommended to evaluate organ function and determine anomalies in cases of suspected organ involvement.

What are the options available for eosinophilia treatment?

One of the best treatment ways to treat high eosinophilia count is treating the underlying causes and reducing symptoms. 

  • Targeted interventions are involved to address the underlying cause such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or allergies.
  • Drugs: Antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants are drugs instances recommended by a doctor to lower eosinophil counts and manage inflammation, depending on the underlying condition.
  • Allergen Avoidance: Eliminating the eosinophilic response and averting flare-ups are two benefits of preventing known allergens for eosinophilia caused by allergies.
  • Antiparasitic Drugs: Antiparasitic drugs are often recommended to treat the underlying infection in case of eosinophilia caused by parasitic infections.
  • Monitoring and Follow-Up: It is recommended to make necessary treatment adjustments, and avoid complications, routine eosinophil level monitoring, and follow-up appointments with medical professionals to track progress.

Conclusion

In conclusion, eosinophilia is an indication of certain medical conditions that require immediate medical attention though it is usually a benign condition. It is imperative to comprehend its potential causes, which may include allergies, infections, or autoimmune disorders to ensure an accurate diagnosis and suitable treatment. Eosinophil levels should be monitored regularly in addition to receiving a comprehensive medical assessment to effectively manage any related conditions. Additionally, honest communication with medical experts confirms prompt action and improves overall well-being. Patients with eosinophilia can manage their condition with confidence and take charge of their own lives by being proactive and knowledgeable.

FAQ -

 

Is eosinophilia dangerous?

Eosinophilia can be mild, severe, or moderate based on the levels of eosinophil count. If there are high levels, then it can cause mild illnesses like drug reactions or allergies, of serious conditions means having certain blood disorders. 

Is eosinophilia curable?

Eosinophilia is a persistent and chronic condition, hence, there is no cure available. However, there are some methods that can help in managing the symptoms.