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Obstetrics and Gynaecology | by CMRI
USG – Ultrasound Sonography Test is a procedure that helps to scan the internal organs of the body by using high-frequency sound waves. USG abdomen and pelvis is a very simple, non-invasive and pain-free method, used to assess the structure and organs of the lower abdomen and pelvis.
There are three types of ultrasound:
Ultrasound is safe, non-invasive and does not use ionizing radiation to assess the organs.
Ultrasound produces pictures of the internal structures and organs of the area by using high-frequency sound waves. It is also known as pelvic scan, pelvic sonography, transabdominal ultrasound, a transvaginal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, etc.
To conduct an ultrasound, a small probe known as a transducer and gel is applied on the skin directly, to allow the high-frequency sound waves from the transducer to travel from the probe into the skin to produce real-time images of the area, as well as the movement of the organs and blood flow in the blood vessels. Unlike X-rays, ultrasounds do not use radiation. In some cases, the doctors might use the Doppler ultrasound technique, which is a specialized ultrasound technique used to determine the movement of materials such as blood flow through arteries and veins.
This non-invasive, pain-free technology is used to examine various organs in both men and women. In women, a pelvic ultrasound is generally performed to analyze:
During pregnancy, a pelvic ultrasound helps to assess the health and growth of an embryo or fetus.
In men, a pelvic ultrasound is conducted to view:
A pelvic ultrasound may be recommended to women to check:
A pelvic ultrasound may be recommended to men to check:
A pelvic ultrasound can be performed in two distinct ways, namely:
Transabdominal: This involves getting pictures of the organs through the abdomen by placing the transducer on the abdomen and using the gel to see inside
Transvaginal: This method involves inserting a flexible, long, and thin transducer covered with gel, as well as a latex sheath – into the vagina to assess the internal organs.
The type of method used depends on the area that needs to be diagnosed and the reason for the assessment.
In the case of a transabdominal ultrasound, the bladder needs to be full for which one is advised to drink at least 8 glasses of water or any other fluid, one hour before the ultrasound. This enables the organs to protrude clearly in the pictures.
However, for a transvaginal ultrasound, the bladder needs to completely empty and hence, it is advised to use the washroom immediately before the ultrasound.
The pelvic ultrasound, no matter the method, is easy, quick, and does not cause any pain. The ultrasound is done by a transducer that uses the gel and transmits high-frequency sound waves to assess the organs. These sound waves bounce off when they reach the organs and tissues and produce an echo directed to the transducer that appears in the form of pictures on the monitor or screen. T
The procedure for each type of pelvic ultrasound is slightly different from the other:
Transabdominal Ultrasound: In this, the patient lies on the back and then a transducer covered with gel is placed on the abdomen and made to move back/forth smoothly to provide a complete picture of the organs and tissues. The gel keeps the air from entering the device and the skin.
Transvaginal Ultrasound: In this, the patient lies on the back with feet up in the air to allow the transducer covered in gel and latex sheath to be inserted into the vagina, similarly to a tampon.
Transrectal Ultrasound: This procedure is done in men, where the patient lies on the side keeping his back towards the technician, while a transducer covered with gel and a cover is placed inside the rectum.
Apart from minor discomfort during a transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound, there are no other risks that arise from an ultrasound.
After the procedure, a radiologist prepares a report of the ultrasound images, to be analyzed by the doctor. The report will provide an assessment of any problems in the area of assessment. The results will then be communicated in simpler terms to the patient. After this, the doctor might recommend some other tests to get deeper insights such as:
Hysteroscopy: For careful and deeper assessment of the uterus, the doctor might undertake another procedure where a flexible, long, thin, and light device is inserted through the vagina into the uterus to assess for problems.
Laparoscopy: For careful and deeper assessment of the pelvis, the doctor will insert a flexible, long, thin and light device through the abdominal wall.
In all, an ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis is safe, and quick, and does not cause any pain. It is one of the best non-invasive methods to assess the lower abdominal and pelvic organs.