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Your Guide to Understanding Testicular Pain - Causes, Risks, and Treatment

Home > Blogs > Your Guide to Understanding Testicular Pain - Causes, Risks, and Treatment

Your Guide to Understanding Testicular Pain - Causes, Risks, and Treatment

Renal Sciences | by Dr. Avisek Dutta | Published on 16/04/2024


If you are experiencing testicular pain and feeling anxious about it, then you don’t have to feel this way. Most people experience the symptoms of testicular pain at some point in their life. However, if the pain is severe in your testicles, then it can be a sign of orchialgia, another term for testicular pain. You must book your appointment with one of the best urologists in Kolkata at The Calcutta Medical Research Institute. You will find the best diagnosis and the right treatment solution for the condition. As per health experts, certain causes of testicular pain are not known yet and the research is underway.

This blog will discuss testicular pain in detail for your improved understanding, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. However, kindly note that this write-up is only for informative purposes and we do not encourage overlooking the doctor’s consultation in any way.

What is Testicular Pain?

Testicular pain is a distressing condition that can affect any individual having testicles, irrespective of age. Testicles, resembling eggs, serve as the male reproductive organs, nestled within a thin skin pouch behind the penis and the scrotum. Testicular pain exhibits signs like throbbing ache, soreness, or discomfort in one or both testicles. The intensity of the pain ranges from mild to severe, often accompanied by alterations in scrotal appearance, tenderness, or swelling. Various factors, including infections, inflammation, injuries, or underlying medical conditions, can trigger testicular pain. Urgent medical intervention is imperative to diagnose the condition and implement appropriate treatment to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications.

What are the symptoms of testicular pain?

Given its potential to occur at any time, being vigilant for symptoms of testicular pain is paramount to prompt intervention. Common symptoms of testicular pain include:

  • Unusual pain or discomfort in one or both testicles 
  • Tender to touch, swelling, or enlarged testicles 
  • Throbbing pain from the testicles to the groin area or lower abdominal area
  • Appearance changes like scrotum bumps, unusual lumps, redness, or warmth feeling in the scrotum
  • Experiencing pain while urinating, blood in urine, or urinary frequency changes 
  • Nauseous feeling or vomiting usually followed by serious testicular pain 
  • Fever or chills in certain cases as a result of inflammation or infection 

What causes testicular pain?

Several causes of testicular pain such as injury, inflammation, accident, etc are there. However, there are some medical conditions as well that can cause testicular pain. Here are some of the common testicular pain causes:

  • Orchitis is a viral or bacterial infection causing inflammation in both or one of the testicles. 
  • An inguinal hernia happens when the intestine pushes through the abdominal muscle's weak part near the groin area. It needs immediate surgery due to severe pain.
  • Epididymitis, a coiled tube at the testicles is an inflammation affecting the male epididymis. It leads to symptoms like pain, swelling, and in certain cases, fever or chills. This condition often is an outcome of a urinary tract infection or UTI, and sexually transmitted infection (STI).
  • Testicular trauma is often mild and usually occurs due to a bike accident or direct blow to the testicle.
  • Epididymal hypertension also referred to as blue balls causes testicular pain due to prolonged sexual arousal. It is a discomforting condition but not serious. It occurs because of the pressure and sperm in the epididymis buildup. 
  • Post-vasectomy pain: A vasectomy is a surgical method that is performed to seal the tubes carrying sperm, known as vas deferens. This procedure is performed for birth control. However, some people experience testicular pain after vasectomy because of high pressure in the tubes.
  • Kidney stones, a solid mass or crystal that grows in the urinary system cause ureter blockage and lead to severe pain in the back, groin, scrotum, or testicles. Small stones are passed through the urethra while peeing, but larger stones require surgery.
  • Testicular torsion is an emergency that often needs surgery. It occurs when the cord carrying blood to the testicles is twisted. This condition causes severe pain in one testicle including vomiting, nausea, and swelling.
  • Spermatocele, a cyst filled with fluid is a condition that grows inside the epididymis near the testicle. They are benign and don’t cause pain, but can develop large causing discomfort to the person. 
  • A hydrocele is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the scrotum around one or both testicles. It is one of the common conditions, specifically in babies. 
  • Hematocele condition occurs when blood gathers around both or one of the testicles causing pain. It often happens after an injury. 
  • Varicocele condition also causes testicular pain as it is a bunch of abnormally large veins in the scrotum. 
  • Testicular cancer: It doesn’t cause pain and growing tumors lead to bleed or interrupt testicle blood flow. If that occurs, groin pain may occur. 

How is testicular pain diagnosed?

A healthcare expert will assess the patient’s medical history and conduct a physical evaluation. The patient is asked to stand up and lie down to examine the testicles of a patient. Here is what kind of questions are asked by a urologist when diagnosing testicular pain such as:

  • When did you start experiencing testicular pain?
  • How long have you been experiencing testicular pain?
  • Where does it hurt exactly?
  • Did you come across any recent injury or groin? 
  • Does any exercise help you, or make it worse such as sexual intercourse, bathroom, masturbating, or sitting?

Once these questions are asked, here are some tests ordered to confirm the diagnosis: 

  • Blood test: It assists in ruling out infection at the earliest as a probable testicular pain cause.
  • Urinalysis: These tests help to eliminate the probability of an infection. 
  • Ultrasound: If there is a lump in the testicle, then the doctor also orders this test to rule out the possibility of testicular cancer. 

What are the options available for testicular pain treatment?

Usually, testicular pain doesn’t cause any serious complications and is treatable at home easily. Here are some home remedies that help to reduce the symptoms of testicular pain recommended by the best urologist in Kolkata:

  • Use a cold compress or an ice pack on the affected area. You can also try wrapping the cold or ice pack in a cloth and applying it occasionally during the day. Make sure you don’t do it for more than fifteen minutes.
  • Try placing a rolled-up cloth under the scrotum while you are lying down on your back.
  • Always take a warm bath.
  • You can consider taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, make sure to speak to your healthcare expert first.

If these home remedies are not helping, get in touch with a urologist or a healthcare expert so that they can prescribe medications that can provide relief when you experience pain such as antibiotics, anti-infective medications, tricyclic antidepressants, etc. It entirely depends on what causes the testicular pain, for instance, if it is due to testicular cancer or testicular torsion, then here are surgeries usually recommended: 

  • Testicular de-torsion: An emergency procedure in which the spermatic cord is untwisted to allow blood flow to the testicles again, and then the testicles are fastened to the scrotal wall to prevent the condition from recurring.
  • Hernia repair: This procedure uses synthetic mesh or sutures to strengthen the abdominal wall while pushing the hernia back into the abdomen.
  • Epididymectomy: If conservative measures fail to relieve persistent epididymal pain, surgical excision of the epididymis may be considered.
  • Vasectomy reversal: In rare cases, this technique involves reversing the surgery to release pressure on the vas deferens or epididymis to relieve persistent testicular pain following a vasectomy.
  • Lithotripsy: High-energy shock waves are used in shock wave lithotripsy, a minimally invasive method, to break up kidney stones.
  • Micro denervation of the spermatic cord: Testicular pain can be relieved by spermatic cord nerve-cutting surgery known as micro denervation of the spermatic cord (MDSC).
  • Orchiectomy: When conservative measures fail to relieve pain, removal of one or both testicles may be required in cases of testicular cancer.


Testicular health and function are vital attributes of overall male health. When people are aware of common problems like testicular torsion, hernias, epididymal pain, and testicular cancer, they can seek prompt medical attention when needed. Even though they may seem scary, surgical treatments like orchiectomy, hernia repair, and testicular detorsion are significant for pain relief and function restoration. Thanks to developments in medical technology, certain conditions can now be treated with minimally invasive methods like shock wave lithotripsy and micro-denervation. In the end, you must prioritize testicular health for a happy and healthy life through preventative healthcare measures.

You can get in touch with the best urologists in Kolkata at The Calcutta Medical Research Institute. You will discover the best diagnosis and most appropriate solutions for your problem here. 



How do you stop testicular pain?

Finding and treating the underlying cause of testicular pain is crucial to its relief. This may entail rest, painkillers, warm baths, supportive underwear, ice packs, and medical attention if the pain worsens or persists.

Does testicle pain heal itself?

If your testicular pain is due to a minor injury or strain, it may go away on its own. Nonetheless, to identify the cause and the best course of action for consistent or severe pain, a medical assessment is required.

Can sperm buildup cause testicle pain?

Testicular discomfort may arise from the accumulation of sperm, known as epididymal hypertension, which may also result in a subtle bluish discoloration of the testicles.