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Know The Common Thyroid Problems & Their Treatment

Home > Blogs > Know The Common Thyroid Problems & Their Treatment

Know The Common Thyroid Problems & Their Treatment

Endocrinology | by Dr. Sudip Kumar Mukherjee | Published on 06/03/2023

Overview: About Thyroid Problems

Our thyroid gland is a small gland located in the neck that produces hormones that play a vital role in different systems throughout the body. These hormones regulate the body's metabolism, energy levels, and growth and development of the individual. However, due to certain medical conditions or genetic mutations, the thyroid gland can malfunction, leading to various thyroid problems.

If you are looking to undergo treatment for your thyroid problems, this blog can provide a reference for the same. However, please note that it is important to consult a doctor for your condition to ensure a timely diagnosis so that the doctor can choose the best treatment option.


What Are The Symptoms Of Common Thyroid Problems?

When the thyroid gland produces too much or too little of these hormones, it can lead to various symptoms that indicate a thyroid problem. Here are some common symptoms of thyroid problems:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Cold intolerance or sensitivity to heat
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Joint pain and stiffness
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Hair loss
  • Constipation or diarrhoea
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Infertility or difficulty becoming pregnant
  • Mood changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
  • Changes in heart rate or rhythm
  • Swelling in the neck due to an enlarged thyroid gland (goitre)


What Causes Common Thyroid Problems In Men & Women?

Thyroid diseases are classified into two categories - hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism leads to the overproduction of thyroid hormones due to medical conditions like Graves’ disease, toxic adenomas, subacute thyroiditis, and although rare, pituitary gland malfunction or cancerous growth in the thyroid gland.

On the other hand, hypothyroidism stems due to the underproduction of thyroid hormones. A decreased hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Hypothyroidism is usually caused by the following medical conditions -

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Removal of the thyroid gland
  • Excessive amounts of Iodide
  • Exposure to lithium
  • Pituitary disorder
  • Defective thyroid


Common Thyroid Problems & Their Treatment:

Problems due to thyroid vary according to age, gender, medical health, etc. which can cause the gland to produce too little thyroid hormones or too much. Thyroid problems in women can lead to hormone imbalance causing problems during puberty, menstruation, fertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period. Here are some common thyroid problems prevalent in both men and women -



Hypothyroidism occurs as a result of insufficient production of thyroid hormones in the gland. Symptoms of this condition include frequent fatigue, unexplained weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, and dry skin. Hypothyroidism is most commonly a result of an autoimmune disorder called Hashimoto's thyroiditis.


  • Treatment: The treatment for hypothyroidism includes synthetic thyroid hormone replacement medication which can be taken orally. However, the dosage is adjusted based on regular blood tests.



Hyperthyroidism is another common thyroid problem which leads to increased production of thyroid hormone. Patients may experience weight loss, anxiety, irritability, increased heart rate, and sweating. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is another autoimmune disorder called Graves' disease.


  • Treatment: Hyperthyroidism can be treated with medication, such as beta-blockers to reduce symptoms, and antithyroid drugs, which inhibit the production of thyroid hormones. Another treatment option is radioactive iodine therapy, which destroys the thyroid gland's cells that produce hormones. In severe cases, the doctor may recommend surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.



A goitre is an enlarged thyroid gland, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including iodine deficiency, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease.


  • Treatment: The treatment for goitre depends on the cause. If the goitre is caused by iodine deficiency, supplementing with iodine can help reduce its size. If the goitre is caused by an underlying thyroid disorder, such as Hashimoto's or Graves' disease, treatment becomes necessary. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the goitre.


Thyroid nodules:

Thyroid nodules are lumps that develop within the thyroid gland. Most nodules are benign, but in some cases, they can be cancerous.


  • Treatment: The treatment for thyroid nodules depends on their size, location, and whether they are cancerous. If the nodule is small and noncancerous, no treatment may be necessary. If the nodule is cancerous or causing symptoms, surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland may be necessary.

Thyroid Problems In Women:

A woman’s thyroid gland affects her reproductive system, particularly if it is overactive or underactive. Any defect in the thyroid gland can cause an imbalance in the hormone levels leading to different problems at different stages of life. Here is a table representing common thyroid problems in women that occur in different stages of life -

Stages of Life

Effects Due To Thyroid Problems

Puberty & Menstruation

  • Abnormal menstruation cycle (can occur early or late)
  • Very light or very heavy menstrual periods
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • No menstrual periods (amenorrhea)


  • Prevents ovulation (release of an egg for fertilization)
  • Increased risk of cyst formation in case of hypothyroid)
  • Cause milk production in the breast, while preventing ovulation

Pregnancy & Postpartum

  • Dangerous for the unborn fetus
  • Increased risk of postpartum thyroiditis
  • Risk of miscarriage
  • Preterm delivery
  • Stillbirth
  • Postpartum haemorrhage
  • Severe morning sickness




Our thyroid gland plays a critical role in regulating various metabolic functions. However, when it malfunctions, it can cause a range of problems. Fortunately, many thyroid problems can be treated effectively with medications, radioactive iodine therapy, or surgical interventions. If you suspect any signs or symptoms of thyroid problems, you must consult your doctor to evaluate your condition and recommend the appropriate course of treatment.


Can thyroid problems affect your breathing?

Yes, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause respiratory issues due to muscle weakness and decreased pulmonary function. Hypothyroidism can cause obstructive sleep apnea or pleural effusion whereas hyperthyroidism causes dyspnea due to respiratory disorders.


Can radiation cause thyroid problems?

Yes, most patients who have undergone radiation therapy for their head and neck cancer are at an increased risk of getting hypothyroidism and benign thyroid nodules.


Are thyroid problems genetic?

While thyroid problems can be a result of several diseases and underlying medical conditions, they can also be caused due to genetic mutation which can trigger autoimmune disorders.


Can thyroid problems cause kidney disease?

Thyroid dysfunction causes significant changes in kidney function by increasing the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which can lead to hyperthyroidism.