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Congenital Heart Disease

What Are Congenital heart diseases?

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a medical condition where the heart or the blood vessels around it don't develop properly before birth. This can lead to a range of problems, from mild to severe, and may require medical intervention. If you or your child are experiencing any symptoms related to heart disorders, contact us to book an appointment with our leading cardiac surgeons for effective treatment.

What Are The Types Of Congenital Heart Diseases?

There are many types of congenital heart disease, each with its own symptoms and treatment options. Some of the most common types of congenital heart diseases include - 

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD) -  This is a hole in the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart. It can cause blood to flow between the chambers and can lead to heart failure.
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD) - This is a hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart. It can cause blood to flow between the chambers and can lead to heart failure.
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) - This is a condition where a blood vessel that should have closed after birth remains open, causing blood to flow between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot - This is a combination of four heart defects that affect blood flow through the heart and can lead to cyanosis (blue skin).

What Are the Symptoms Of Congenital Heart Diseases?

The symptoms of congenital heart disease vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Some of the common symptoms of congenital heart diseases include - 

  • Cyanosis (blue or purple skin colour)
  • Rapid breathing or shortness of breath
  • Poor feeding or lack of appetite
  • Slow growth
  • Recurrent respiratory infections

How Do Congenital Heart Diseases Occur?

Congenital heart disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors are mostly responsible for the heart's structure, while environmental factors can affect how the heart develops. Some of the common causes of CHD include - 

  • Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations can interfere with the development of the heart, leading to congenital heart disease.
  • Maternal infections: Infections during pregnancy can lead to congenital heart disease. These infections include rubella, cytomegalovirus, and toxoplasmosis.
  • Exposure to toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as alcohol and drugs, during pregnancy can interfere with the heart's development.
  • Diabetes: Women with poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to have a baby with CHD.

When Should I Consult The Doctor for Congenital Heart Diseases?

Get in touch with a doctor if your symptoms do not improve with medications or get worse with time. Symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath in children for a prolonged period can result in an increased risk of complications which may require medical attention.

How Are Congenital Heart Diseases Diagnosed?

Congenital heart disease diagnosis involves a combination of physical examination and examining your medical history. Furthermore, the doctor may recommend several diagnostic tests to confirm symptoms of congenital heart disorder - 

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Chest X-ray
  • Heart CT scan and heart MRI
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Echocardiogram
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Exercise tests or stress tests
  • Cardiac catheterisation

What Are The Different Treatment Options For Congenital Heart Diseases?

The treatment of congenital heart disease depends on the type and severity of the condition. Some of the common treatment options for CHD are as follows -

  • Medications- Some types of CHD can be treated with medications that help the heart function properly.
  • Surgery- Many types of CHD require surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve or to correct a structural defect. Surgeries include Implanting Heart Devices and Open-Heart Surgery.
  • Cardiac catheterisation- This is a minimally invasive procedure that can be used to diagnose and treat certain types of CHD.
  • Heart transplant- In severe cases, a heart transplant may be necessary to replace a damaged or diseased heart. 

Why Choose BM Birla for Congenital Heart Disease Treatment in Kolkata?

BM Birla Heart Research Centre is a super speciality hospital with modern infrastructure and state-of-the-art technology in Kolkata. BM Birla Heart Research Centre is the only hospital offering super speciality cardiac care in the entire eastern India. With a 200+ bed capacity, cardiac rehabilitation services, cath labs and modular OTs, BM Birla Heart Research Centre has made a mark with its singular focus on the treatment of a variety of cardiac ailments. Here are a few advantages of choosing BM Birla Heart Research Centre for Congenital heart disease treatment in Kolkata:

  • Highly qualified and experienced cardiologists
  • Cutting-edge technology and the latest medical equipment
  • Transparent pricing structure for cost-effective treatment. 
  • Patient-centric high-quality care for a high success rate

Contact our expert heart specialists at BM Birla Heart Research Centre, Kolkata for complete cardiac care.


How common is congenital heart disease?

CHDs are fairly common in India as well as the world. It is estimated that around 28% of all congenital birth defects are diagnosed as CHDs.

How long can you live with congenital heart disease?

Life expectance of people with congenital heart conditions is around 1 year for 75% of babies while almost 69% of infants born with critical CHDs tend to live up to 18 years of age. Regular health checkups and effective congenital heart disease management can prolong the survival rates of such patients.

Can congenital heart disease be cured?

Yes, there are several options for the effective treatment of congenital heart conditions which can vary depending on the severity and medical health of the individual. Get in touch with a doctor to discuss your condition and know the best treatment option for you.

How to prevent congenital heart disease?

Since there is no known cause of this condition, doctors often recommend several measures for congenital heart disease management which include screening and regular health checkups for early detection and to prevent the risk of complications.

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