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Portal Hypertension

What is Portal Hypertension?

Portal hypertension is referred to as an increase in blood pressure within the portal venous system. It is accountable to carry blood from the digestive organs to the liver. The condition occurs when there is a blockage or resistance to the flow of blood through the portal vein or its branches. The portal vein involves receiving blood from the intestines, stomach, pancreas, and spleen, and moving it to the liver for filtration, detoxification, and nutrient processing.

Portal hypertension generally is mainly experienced by an individual because of liver cirrhosis, a progressive illness determined by healthy liver tissue replacement with scar tissue. However, other causes like portal vein blood clots also known as portal vein thrombosis, liver fibrosis, certain infections, and genetic conditions also contribute to developing portal hypertension.

Portal Hypertension Symptoms

Portal hypertension can cause several symptoms and complications. The most common portal hypertension symptoms are:

  • Gastrointestinal bleeding: It involves vomiting blood, passing black, tarry stools, or fresh blood in the stools.
  • Ascites: It leads to abdominal distension, discomfort, and increased waist circumference.
  • Splenomegaly: It causes abdominal pain, early satiety, and anemia.
  • Variceal bleeding: It might cause life-threatening bleeding. 
  • Hepatic encephalopathy: It can cause changes in mental function, confusion, memory problems, personality changes, and even coma in certain cases.
  • Splenic vein thrombosis: This can cause additional symptoms such as abdominal pain and fever

Causes of Portal Hypertension

Several underlying conditions can cause portal hypertension. The most common causes of portal hypertension are:

  • Liver Cirrhosis
  • Blood clots
  • Adam Oliver syndrome and Turner’s syndrome 
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Congenital abnormalities
  • Hepatic vein obstruction

Complications of Portal Hypertension

Portal hypertension can cause various complications because of the increased pressure in the portal venous system. If left untreated, here are the complications it can cause:

  • Variceal bleeding
  • Ascites
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Splenomegaly
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Liver failure

Portal Hypertension Diagnosis

Portal hypertension diagnosis is initiated by including a combination of clinical assessment, imaging studies, and certain specialized procedures. Some of the commonly used methods to confirm the diagnosis are: 

  • Medical history and physical examination
  • Imaging tests: It involves ultrasound, doppler ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Endoscopic examination: This integrates esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy
  • Hemodynamic measurements: Two procedures are used to confirm the diagnosis which include hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure

Portal Hypertension Treatment

Portal hypertension aims to manage the underlying cause, alleviate symptoms, prevent complications, and improve overall liver function. The specific treatment options depend on the underlying cause, the severity of portal hypertension, and the presence of complications. Here are some common treatment options:

  • Medications: These include beta-blockers, Vasopressin analogs, and antibiotics to prevent and treat bacterial infections. 
  • Endoscopic treatments: This treatment option involves band ligation and sclerotherapy
  • Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): It helps in diverting blood flow, reducing portal pressure, and improving symptoms.
  • Surgical interventions: In severe cases, surgical interventions like portal decompression surgeries and liver transplantation are required.

Why should you choose The Calcutta Medical Research Institute for Portal hypertension treatment?

The Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI) is one of the largest multispecialty hospitals in Kolkata. Our hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art technology, revolutionizing the healthcare industry for the best surgical outcomes. 

In addition, CMRI has several eminent specialists, doctors, and healthcare providers of national and international reputations for comprehensive and personalized treatment. CMRI provides patient-centric care and empathy from internationally trained nurses to ensure holistic care for patients seeking treatment for portal hypertension. Here are a few advantages of choosing CMRI for portal hypertension treatment: 

  • Highly qualified and experienced doctors
  • 440-bed capacity along with cutting-edge technology and the latest medical equipment
  • Hygienic and patient-friendly infrastructure
  • Thorough screening and diagnosis
  • Transparent Pricing Structure for cost-effective treatment
  • Patient-centric, high-quality care for a high success rate
  • Pain management and palliative care
  • Complete and coordinated care for patients with all types of cancers.


Why does splenomegaly occur in Portal Hypertension?

Splenomegaly occurs in portal hypertension because of tissue hyperplasia and fibrosis.

Which liver cirrhosis causes Portal Hypertension?

One of the main causes of liver cirrhosis is an increase in Intrahepatic vascular resistance.

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Dr. Ajay Mandal's association with Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI)

Dr. Ajay Mandal's association with Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI)

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