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What is infertility?

Infertility is a condition when a couple is unable to conceive trying to get pregnant naturally for more than a year. This condition occurs due to a problem with their reproductive system. According to a healthcare expert, a couple is considered infertile if they fail to achieve pregnancy within one year of trying.

It is found in a study that one out of six married couples in the world experiencing fertility problems aren’t able to achieve parenthood at present. The study also reflects that the rate of infertility cases is increasing at a rapid rate. Infertility doesn’t essentially means that a male or a female is sterile and can never have babies. Half of the couples eventually achieve pregnancy either naturally or with medical assistance.

There are several fertility treatments available nowadays such as In-vitro fertilization (IVF), Intrauterine insemination (IUI), medical treatment for lack of regular ovulation, etc. There are surgical procedures as well to treat different conditions like endometriosis and blockage in the fallopian tubes. It is recommended not to delay the treatment as for women above 35 years of age, chances of achieving pregnancy become very less and for men above the age of 50 treatments don’t work.

Types of Infertility

The types of infertility are:

  • Primary infertility: It is when a female has never conceived a child in the past and has trouble conceiving again.
  •  Secondary infertility: It occurs when a female is not able to conceive again after having at least one successful pregnancy.


The primary symptom of infertility is being able to conceive. There might not be evident symptoms. Sometimes, women can experience irregular or absent periods if they have an infertility condition, whereas, men can have hormonal issues, changes in hair growth, changes in sexual functions, etc. Infertility symptoms for both men and women are different.

Symptoms of infertility in females

The symptoms of infertility in females are:

Symptoms of infertility in male

The symptoms of infertility in men are:

  • Genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis
  • Enlarged veins (varicocele) in the scrotum
  • Low sperm count or low testosterone
  • Anabolic steroids misuse
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Undescended testicles
  • Injury to testicles
  • High heat exposure to testicles
  • Testicular cancer

Causes of infertility

Infertility causes affect one or both partners and sometimes, when no causes are found then it is known as unexplained infertility

Causes of male infertility

Here are the causes of male infertility:

  • Issues with the delivery of sperm: This problem occurs because of sexual issues like certain genetic issues like cystic fibrosis, premature ejaculation, and structural issues which includes testicle blockage, and reproductive organs injury.
  • Abnormal sperm production: It happens because of undescended testicles, genetic defects, and other health issues like gonorrhoea, chlamydia, HIV, or mumps. Enlarged veins in the testicles also affect sperm quality.
  • Overexposure to environmental factors: This includes pesticides, chemicals, and radiation. Anabolic steroids, marijuana, cigarette smoking, alcohol, high blood pressure, and depression cause infertility in men. High heat exposure such as hot tubs and saunas is also one of the reasons for male infertility as it affects sperm production.
  • Damage related to cancer and its treatment: This is also an issue for males as a cancer treatment involves chemotherapy and radiation. The treatment for cancer leads to impairing sperm production causing infertility.

Causes of female infertility

The causes of female infertility are:

  • Ovulation disorders: This problem affects the eggs released in females from the ovaries. It comprises hormonal disorders like PCOS. There are different conditions which affect monthly ovulation such as hyperprolactinemia, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, obesity, and tumours.
  • Uterine or cervical anomalies: These involve anomalies with the polyps in the uterus, cervix, and uterus shape. Uterine fibroids cause infertility by blocking the fallopian tubes. It can even stop a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.
  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tube: It is usually caused by fallopian tube inflammation. It can occur due to pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis, and adhesions.
  • Endometriosis: This condition is commonly found in females. It occurs when endometrial tissue growth is outside the uterus. It leads to improper functioning of the fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries.
  • Cancer: Reproductive cancers among women often lead to impairing female fertility. Chemotherapy and radiation are the primary reasons for the same.

Infertility diagnosis

If any individual or a couple have been trying to get pregnant and haven’t seen any results within a year, then it is better to consult a doctor. The doctor will perform certain tests to assess the fertility of both partners. The infertility diagnosis for a man and a female is different.

Diagnosis for men

Men must plan to see a healthcare professional after one year of trying to conceive or if any of the following problems are observed:

  • Low sexual drive
  • Pain or swelling in the genitals
  • Ejaculation issues like delayed or retrograde ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction

The doctor will understand the clinical history first and will ask about the sexual history, factors that could affect fertility, and the overall health of a male. A physical examination will be performed to check the genitals for any structural anomalies or lumps.

A semen analysis will be done and the doctor will ask a male to provide a semen sample. It is tested in a laboratory to see the number of sperms present and their shape. The doctor may want to perform more tests depending on the initial exam results and semen analysis. These tests are genetic testing, genetic ultrasound, and hormone testing.

Diagnosis for females

Women who are above 35 and have been trying to achieve pregnancy for more than a year must visit a doctor. Fertility in females begins to decline after the age of 30. It is important to diagnose the condition for timely treatment. The doctor will ask about the clinical history, present health state, sexual history, and diseases that could contribute to infertility. To check anomalies like fibroids, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, the doctor will perform a pelvic area examination.

The doctor will order blood tests to know if a female is ovulating every month. An ultrasound test is also recommended for examining the uterus and ovaries. There are other tests recommended for female infertility diagnosis:

  • Laparoscopy: It assists in examining the internal organs of a female with the use of a camera
  • Hysterosalpingography: It is an x-ray type which is used to examine the uterus and fallopian tubes
  • Ovarian reserve testing: It involves a combination of hormonal tests and follicle-stimulating hormone tests (FSH) for determining the female’s ability to conceive.

Infertility treatments

Infertility treatment depends on different factors which involve:

  • Infertility causes
  • How long an individual or a couple have been infertile
  • Age of both partners
  • Personal preferences

It is essential to know that there are certain infertility causes which can’t be corrected. In certain cases, where natural pregnancy doesn’t occur, couples can still conceive often through assisted reproductive technology. One should also be prepared for infertility treatment as it comprises significant commitments such as physical, financial, psychological, and time.

Male infertility treatment

Male infertility treatment generally includes general sexual issues or a lack of healthy sperm. Here are the treatment options for male infertility:

  • Medications: Some medications help to improve sperm count and the probability of achieving a successful pregnancy. The doctor will give medications which will increase the functions of the testicles, comprising quality and production of sperm.
  • Surgery: It is recommended to reverse sperm blockage and restore fertility in men for some conditions. It is often performed to repair a varicocele to enhance pregnancy chances.
  • Sperm retrieval: It is performed with the use of assisted reproductive technologies to resolve the issue of ejaculation. This method is used when there is no sperm present in the ejaculation fluid. It is also used to treat problems like abnormally shaped sperm and low sperm count.
  • Changing lifestyle factors: To improve the chances of pregnancy, improving lifestyle and certain behaviours can play a huge role. It involves discontinuing habits like smoking, alcohol, substance use like drugs, etc.

Female infertility treatment

The treatment options for female infertility are:

  • Fertility drugs: These are used to stimulate ovulation among females who are infertile because of ovulation disorders. It is important to consult the doctor about fertility drug options to understand the benefits and risks.
  • Surgery: Hysteroscopy surgery is performed to restore fertility and resolve uterine issues like endometrial polyps, intrauterine scar tissue, uterine septum, and fibroids. Laparoscopic surgery is performed to treat pelvic adhesions, larger fibroids, and endometriosis.

Assisted reproductive technology treatment options

There are various assisted reproductive technology treatment options for infertility. It includes:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): This technique is used by collecting the sperm and placing it directly inside the female uterus to create a pregnancy. It is performed when a female is ovulating.
  • In-vitro fertilisation (IVF): In this technique, the eggs and sperm are collected for fertilisation in a lab. Once the embryo is formed, it is placed in the female uterus. There are other IVF techniques which are ICSI or intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching.
  • Sperm or egg donation: This option is used when other fertility treatment options aren’t of any use. An individual can use sperm or egg donation. IVF is used as an option for treating fertility with donor eggs or sperm.
  • Surgical sperm aspiration: In this method, the sperm is removed from the male reproductive tract such as the testicle, epididymis, or vas deferens. For fertilising the egg or freezing the sperm for future use, the doctors will use IVF.

Why should you choose Rukmani Birla Hospital for infertility treatment?

Rukmani Birla Hospital, Jaipur is a multispecialty hospital delivering healthcare services to its patients for years now. Our patient care is unmatchable and the services we offer are economical for every patient. We make sure that our services are accessible to everyone and that no one has to face problems while reaching us. With our latest and up-to-date advanced medical technology, we offer a reliable and smooth patient experience.

If you have been trying to get pregnant for more than a year and aren’t seeing any results, make sure to consult our expert fertility doctors. They will guarantee an appropriate infertility diagnosis and give you treatment depending on the symptoms you are experiencing. Here is why you must pick us for infertility treatment:

  • Affordable pricing structure
  • State-of-the-art technology
  • NABH accreditation
  • Highly-qualified and experienced doctors
  • Patient-centric approach
  • Personalized care


How can you prevent infertility?

If you want to prevent infertility condition, then follow these tips:

  • Eat a well-balanced diet
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Quit smoking, misuse of drugs, and excessive alcohol
  • Get treatment for STDs
  • Restrict exposure to toxins
  • Exercise regularly

How common is infertility?

Infertility has become a worldwide health issue these days. It affects millions of people of reproductive age across the globe. According to a study, it is found that more than 48 million couples and 186 million individuals globally have infertility issues.

What are the complications of infertility?

If infertility is left untreated and conception doesn’t occur, it can cause issues like stress, anxiety and depression. There can be physical effects also which include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) among females, ectopic pregnancy, and multiple pregnancies. Hence, one shouldn’t delay the treatment and must consult the specialist as soon as possible.


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