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Tympanoplasty

What is Tympanoplasty (eardrum surgery)?

Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure to treat ruptured eardrums. The eardrum or tympanic membrane is the tissue separating the ear canal and the middle ear. A minor hole in the eardrum usually heals on its own. However, if the perforation in the eardrum becomes severe, it can lead to permanent loss of hearing. Tympanoplasty procedure repairs the damaged eardrum reducing the chances of permanent hearing loss. 

Tympanoplasty can be performed along with other procedures to treat ear-related problems. Doctors may perform ossiculoplasty which is the reconstruction of the tiny bones in the middle ear. Another procedure, mastoidectomy involves the removal of disease cells from the mastoid bone, located in the skull. Give us a call to book an appointment with some of the best ENT specialists in Kolkata for effective tympanoplasty (eardrum) surgery.

What Are The Different Types Of Tympanoplasty?

Tympanoplasty types can be classified into different grades according to the Wullstein classification - 

  • Type I - It involves repairing the tympanic membrane only as there is no abnormality in the middle ear. Type I tympanoplasty is also called myringoplasty and involves grafting materials.
  • Type II - It involves repairing the tympanic membrane and treating middle ear infections due to erosion of the malleus. The tympanic membrane is grafted into the incus or malleus.
  • Type III - It involves grafting the tympanic membrane onto the stapes head due to defects in the malleus and incus.
  • Type IV - It is used for ossicular destruction and involves placing a graft onto the stapes footplate.
  • Type V: It is used when a stapes footplate becomes fixed.

When to Consult A Doctor for Tympanoplasty?

Tympanoplasty is performed to repair a ruptured eardrum. Therefore, if you are experiencing signs of perforation in the eardrum which are impacting your daily routine, then it is important you get in touch with a healthcare provider and seek medical assistance.

How To Prepare For Tympanoplasty?

Before the tympanoplasty procedure, the doctor will examine your symptoms and detect the extent of perforation in the eardrum. The doctor may recommend several diagnostic tests such as comprehensive audiometry tests, tympanometry, CT scan, ear examination using an otoscope, etc. Once the ENT specialist detects the perforation in the tympanic membrane, surgery is subsequently recommended. 

However, the doctor provides a set of guides before the surgery which can help you prepare for the procedure and prevent any complications - 

  • Inform your healthcare expert of any current medications and history of allergies due to anesthesia to avoid complications
  • Do not eat or drink the night before the surgery. It is generally recommended to not take any meal post-midnight. 
  • Discuss your history of medical conditions and surgical procedures with the doctor
  • Stop smoking and consuming alcohol a week before the surgery to reduce the recovery time
  • Inform your doctor in case you have a history of bleeding disorders
  • Wear comfortable clothes which do not put pressure on the nasal cavity
  • Take prescribed medications prior to the surgery as directed by the physician

What Happens During The Tympanoplasty Surgery?

The patient is given local anaesthesia before the procedure. The surgeon can perform ear surgery endoscopically or via open surgery. However, endoscopy is preferred over the latter as it leaves almost invisible scars in the front and behind the ear. Here is what you can expect during your tympanoplasty (eardrum) surgery - 

  • The surgeon makes an incision behind or in front of the ear and enters the ear through the canal. Depending on the size and location of the hole in the eardrum, the approach can vary. 
  • After locating the hole using an endoscope, the surgeon removed the edge of the hole and closes it with a graft. The graft is a patch of tissue obtained either from the patient’s ear or other synthetic material. 
  • The graft is secured to the ear canal and other parts of the ear, depending on the type of tympanoplasty procedure. The doctor may also use cartilage from the tragus (the bump in front of the ear). Finally, a foam or spongy material is placed to hold the graft in place and all the incisions are closed subsequently using bio-absorbable incisions.
  • In case the middle ear bones are also damaged, a prosthetic implant will be placed in the place of the damaged bones during the same procedure.
     

Recovering After Tympanoplasty Procedure:

After the tympanoplasty surgery, the patient is shifted to the recovery room where the medical staff monitors their recovery. It may take 7 to 10 days to recover after the procedure depending on the medical condition of the patient. 

The doctor may suggest some recovery tips and dietary restrictions to help you recover after your tympanoplasty surgery. Additionally, the doctor will prescribe medications to reduce any pain or discomfort and ensure a speedy recovery. Tympanoplasty recovery tips include the following - 

  • Place a cotton ball in the ear if there are signs of blood. Consult a doctor if there is abnormal bleeding.
  • Do not blow the nose for at least 3 weeks after the tympanoplasty. Keep your mouth open if you have to sneeze.
  • Keep the ear dry and avoid showering or washing your hair for the first few days after the procedure.

Why Choose CMRI for Tympanoplasty Surgery in Kolkata?

The Calcutta Medical Research Institute (CMRI) is one of the largest multispecialty hospitals in Kolkata. Our hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art technology which has revolutionized the healthcare industry for the best surgical outcomes. 

In addition, our hospital has several eminent specialists, surgeons and healthcare providers of national and international repute for comprehensive and personalised treatment. CMRI provides patient-centric care and empathy from internationally trained nurses to ensure holistic care for patients seeking effective surgery for a perforated eardrum. Here are a few advantages of choosing CMRI for your tympanoplasty surgery- 

  • Highly qualified and experienced ENT surgeons
  • 440-bed capacity along with cutting-edge technology and the latest medical equipment
  • Hygienic and patient-friendly infrastructure
  • Screening and diagnosis
  • Transparent Pricing Structure for cost-effective treatment
  • Patient-centric high-quality care for a high success rate
  • Pain management and palliative care
  • Complete and coordinated care for patients with all types of cancers.
     

FAQs

What is the surgical time of the Tympanoplasty?

The surgical duration of tympanoplasty varies according to the type and severity of the condition. The OT time of tympanoplasty is usually between 30 minutes to 1 hour. However, it also depends on the surgical experience of the ENT surgeon.

Is Tympanoplasty surgery painful?

No, tympanoplasty surgery is not painful since it is done under local or general anaesthesia. The patient is sedated throughout the procedure and does not feel any pain or discomfort. However, as the effects of anaesthesia fade away, there may be slight discomfort or pain around the site of the incision.

Whom should I consult for my deviated nasal symptoms?

ENT surgeon specialises in diagnosing and treating conditions related to the ear, nose and throat. Therefore, in case you are planning to undergo tympanoplasty, get in touch with an ENT surgeon. Call us to book an appointment with some of the best ENT specialists in Kolkata for an effective eardrum repair surgery.

What is the recovery time after the Tympanoplasty procedure?

Recovery time after tympanoplasty usually varies depending on the medical health of the patient. However, it usually takes 10 to 14 days to recover after the procedure if the patient is following post-operative tips.

What are the complications of Tympanoplasty surgery?

Tympanoplasty is a safe and effective procedure to treat perforation in the ear. However, there are rare chances of complications depending on the severity of the perforation. Tympanoplasty complications include - 

  • Graft failure
  • Abnormal bleeding from the ear 
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Severe ear pain, or pain more than seven days after surgery 
  • Excessive drainage 
  • Swelling or drainage from the incision site 
  • Dizziness that lasts more than a week
  • Decreased movement of the face

What is the difference between myringoplasty and tympanoplasty procedures?

Myringoplasty or type I tympanoplasty is performed only on the tympanic membrane, without manipulating the middle ear or the ossicles. On the other hand, tympanoplasty involves the eradication of the obstruction from the middle ear and the repair of the perforated tympanic membrane for improved hearing.

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