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What is a migraine?

A migraine is a headache and neurological health disease causing a range of symptoms such as discomfort, throbbing pain in one side of the head, feeling pulsing sensation, and nausea. It is a very common problem these days especially among adults and even the younger generation because of the lifestyle they are living.

This problem might last from a few hours to days. As per the surveys, it is found that this neurological condition ranks sixth among the most disabling diseases across the world.

Types of Migraines

There are various migraine types one must be mindful of as it helps in dealing with the problem efficiently.

Here are its primary types:

  • Migraine with aura: It is a periodic headache triggered by the same kind of disturbances known as aura. These disturbances might involve blind spots, light flashes, hand tingling, etc.
  • Migraine without aura: It is a kind of migraine that doesn’t involve any triggers or strikes. It can come without any warning or any sign.
  • Migraine with no pain: In this type, an individual doesn’t realize that they have a migraine which includes symptoms like an aura.
  • Hemiplegic migraine: This type of migraine headache involves paralysis temporarily. Any individual experiencing may also notice some changes neurologically and sensory on part of his/her body. This migraine symptom includes vision change, dizziness, sensation loss, tingling sensation, temporary numbness, feeling very weak on side of the body, etc.
  • Retinal migraine: It is one of the migraine types that involves vision loss but that could be complete, partial, or temporary. One can experience the pain behind the eye and lose eyesight for a minute. It is important to get in touch with the healthcare provider on time as it can also be a reflection of some perilous problem.
  • Chronic migraine: This type of migraine headache occurs for around 15 days each month and the symptoms are that they keep changing frequently.
  • Migraine with brainstem aura: In this type, people may experience pain in the back of their head which also causes the problem of vertigo, balance loss, double vision, and unclear speech. It occurs suddenly causing signs like vomits, ringing in the ears, and not being able to speak.
  • Status migrainosus: This is among the migraine types known for its severity. It lasts for around 72 hours and at times even more than that. Any person experiencing this kind of migraine goes through bad symptoms like being extremely nauseated and massive headache pain.

Four stages of migraine

Migraine problem has the propensity of moving through four stages:

  • Prodromal stage: There are early warning signs hours before the occurrence of this phase of migraine headache. It includes thirst, irritation, unusual activeness, depression, food cravings, sleepiness, and the urge to pee often.
  • Aura stage: This phase involves the beginning of strange feelings. People suffering from migraine problems, in this phase, experience signs like skin sensations, language issues, and vision change.
  • Attack stage: An individual who is suffering from this phase experiences symptoms like intolerance towards light and sound, fainting, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting, and throbbing pain on one side of the head. It usually begins above the eyes and lasts from hours to days.
  • Postdrome stage: This stage is also known as a migraine hangover and involves symptoms like tiredness, crankiness, unusually refreshed, weakness, food cravings, or loss of appetite.

What causes migraine?

Migraine headache causes haven’t been defined yet and are complicated to completely comprehend. When an individual has a migraine headache, it implies that there is a particular nerve in the blood vessels sending pain warnings to the brain.

It also causes substances that are inflammatory into the head blood vessels and nerves. There is no reason behind this functioning of nerves.

However, certain triggers cause migraine pain and they are:

  • Emotional stress is known to be the primary reason as it releases chemicals in the brain leading to migraine.
  • If you are someone in the habit of delaying a meal, then it can also become the cause of migraine headaches.
  • Any individual who is prone to any sensitivity to particular chemicals and preservatives present in the food can experience a migraine problem.
  • Too much caffeine or completely withdrawing consumption of this beverage can trigger migraine pain.
  • If you use pain-relieving medication frequently, then it also is known to be a trigger for migraine as it causes rebound headaches.
  • The hormonal shift is a cause of migraine in females as it involves a sudden estrogen drop.

What are the symptoms of migraine?

One of the major migraine symptoms is unbearable pain. The pain can be throbbing, pulsing, mild to moderate, and severe. Although, there are symptoms one must be mindful of such as:

  • Inability to bear noise, and light.
  • Bad feelings such as pain in the abdomen, vomiting, or nausea.
  • Feeling lethargic and tired.
  • Dizziness, fever, diarrhea, blurred vision.

It is imperative to identify the triggers and migraine symptoms. One must understand the migraine phase and stage as they have diverse symptoms as discussed above for better comprehension.

When to see a doctor?

It is difficult to diagnose and treat the migraine problem but you must be aware of the fact that when do you need a doctor. Firstly, be aware of the warning signs such as severe headache and the intensity of it. Observe the frequency of the pain so that it becomes easier to explain while you get in touch with the doctor.

You must ensure to reach out to the GP if you are experiencing the migraine more than 5 times a month with the symptoms like:

  • Experiencing unclear or distorted speech.
  • Sudden throbbing headache pain.
  • Headache following high temperature, mental confusion, rash, double vision, and stiff neck.
  • Sudden paralysis or weakness on one side of the face or the arms.


To identify the reasons for migraine, the doctor initiates the process of diagnosis first. So, you must share information such as family history and the symptoms you have been experiencing. Make sure to observe the signs and understand the triggers.

For a better diagnosis, ensure establishing the migraine symptoms such as:

  • Symptoms you experience when your head hurts.
  • The frequency of migraines in a month or how often you get them.
  • Observe how long migraine pain lasts.
  • Any family history of migraine.
  • Tell your doctor if you take any supplements frequently, even if they are even over-the-counter ones.

Your doctor can ask you to get some migraine tests done, as sometimes it is difficult to identify the problem. These tests are:

  • EEG or electroencephalogram
  • Imaging tests- MRI & CT scan
  • Blood tests


No cure is there for migraine treatment, although there are some medications and home remedies that can help ease the pain. Here are some of them:


  • Pain relief: Some medications help in relieving migraine pain and they are known as OTC or over-the-counter drugs. It is recommended to be cautious while taking the OTC drugs as they can cause rebound headaches or an individual can become reliant on them.
  • Nausea medicine: Sometimes doctors recommend nausea medicine depending on the symptoms.
  • Triptans: This medication is useful in reversing the changes in the brain that leads to causing migraine headaches.
  • Preventive medicines: In case, no treatment is working and the migraine pain is very serious also if you are experiencing it very often in a month, then your doctor may recommend preventing medicines. It includes blood pressure such as calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers, seizure medicines, antidepressants, etc. The doctor might recommend you take them daily as this will help you with making the pain less serious and frequent.

Home remedies

Home remedies also are beneficial in treating migraine headaches, but never assume that it will be cured permanently. The remedies will help you with relieving the pain. Here are the remedies:

  • Make sure to rest for a while in a room that is peaceful and dark.
  • You can use an ice pack or cold compress on your head.
  • Make sure to consume a lot of liquids.

Why choose Calcutta Medical Research Institute or CMRI Hospital for Migraine treatment?

CMRI is a multi-specialty hospital in Kolkata with one of the best and top-notch infrastructures offering comprehensive healthcare services across all the specialties of medicines. CMRI puts its best efforts into offering high-quality care with the expertise of highly-qualified and certified doctors.

We ensure providing complete care to the patients seeking migraine treatment.

Here is why you must book your appointment for migraine diagnosis and treatment with us:

  • State-of-the-art medical facilities with advanced equipment.
  • Affordable pricing.
  • High-quality care.
  • Highly qualified & experienced neuro doctors.

Reach us now for more information and we will take care of all your healthcare needs.


Is migraine a result of neurological dysfunction?

Yes, it is as when people experience a headache they refer to it as a migraine. The migraine symptoms can be unbearable and is a collection of neurological condition signs.

How can I stop migraine pain?

The simple answer to this question is you can stop migraine pain by early recognition. You must observe the triggers and symptoms. Keep a track of them so that next time you are aware of taking the action on time. Always keep your medication handy so that if you are experiencing mild headaches, you can timely take preventive measures.

Why doesn't the MRI display the migraine problem?

Migraine is a neurological disease and an abnormal function of the brain. MRI can reflect everything when it comes to the brain structure but will show a minute detail about the brain's functionality.

How severe is the migraine pain?

Migraine can be incapacitating for some people. It is known to be the second main cause of disability across the world. The symptoms aren’t just the pain but also the light sensitivity, sound, and feeling of vomiting or nausea. Hence, bearing the pain can be next to impossible sometimes which is why one must ensure visiting a renowned neurologist.

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